New film on the US war of conquest against the Philippine people, 1900

“Amigo” trailer in English

see the Philippine trailer for the film here:

INTERVIEW | John Sayles on “Amigo”: “It’s just a great story that hasn’t been told”

by Brian Brooks (August 19, 2011)

A scene from John Sayles' "Amigo." Image courtesy of Variance Films.

Oscar-nominated filmmaker John Sayles dusted off an obscure part of American (and Filipino) history in making his latest film “Amigo,” set in the Philippines amidst the backdrop of U.S. occupation following the defeat of the country’s long-time colonial overlord, Spain. The drama follows a group of U.S. troops who occupy the small jungle hamlet. Under pressure from a stalwart officer, played by Chris Cooper, to help the Americans hunt for Filipino guerrilla fighters, the town’s defacto leader, Rafael (Joel Torre) is placed in a particularly odd situation because his brother (Ronnie Lazaro) leads the local insurgency and considers anyone who cooperates with the Americans to be a traitor. Rafael faces off a no-win situation, making potentially deadly decisions.

In a recent conversation with indieWIRE, Sayles talks about how he became enthralled with this little known part of history through writing his recent book, “A Moment in the Sun,” its parallels with U.S. expeditions overseas today, filming in the Philippines and why Hollywood and network news aren’t necessarily obligated to tell an accurate story.

What intrigued you initially about this period of American and Philippine history initially? There have been many films about wars America has been involved in that we’re both won or lost like World War II, the Civil War, Vietnam, and even Somalia. But not much on the Philippines and people are not as knowledgeable about this.

I think some of what attracted me was how unknown it was and when I stumbled across the existence of this war, which I had never heard of and I had relatives in the Philippines, I said “Well, how come I don’t know about this?” We usually celebrate the wars that we win. Then, asking some Filipino-American friends, they said, “It was not taught in our school. We were just taught “Oh, the Americans bought us for $20 million from the Spanish,’” leaving out a war in which at least 500,000 Filipinos were killed, maybe a million counting civilians. So, how does that happen? Why does America not want to celebrate this war in its media and why don’t they when they take over the Philippines’ school system ever talk about it, just leave it out and not even make a lie about it?

That led me to do some research and it eventually led to this book I wrote, “Moment in the Sun.” In the American psychology, when we went from “We’re the champions of liberty. We’re going to go down to Cuba and free the poor little brown Cuban peasants from the these nasty Spanish imperialists, lessers and then within a couple months, somehow it was OK for us to go to the Philippines and kill Filipinos to take over their country. People were proudly saying, “I’m an imperialist and it’s about time we became players like the British and the French and the Russians and the Germans and the Japanese.” It was pretty naked. It was racist and it was about “We should be cashing in. There’s money to be made in the world and we should be in on it too.”

There was an anti-Imperialist league. Mark Twain was the most famous person in that, who’d been very much for the Cuban part of the war and just said, “What are we doing taking away somebody else’s country?” Water-boarding, which was called the water cure back then, first reared its ugly head during this war. There were Congressional committees investigating it. So it just seems like an interesting situation to put a bunch of soldiers who really didn’t know where they were in the middle of a war and to highlight our first war of occupation.

[In this film], the mayor of the town who wakes up the morning and has to make the decision about how much to cooperate to help the people around him without being a collaborator and a traitor. How much does he resist without getting killed? That happened in Nazi-occupied Germany, the Romans in Judea, the French in Algeria, when we were in Vietnam. Those decisions had to be made by somebody. I put it in the film, I kept running into this phrase “hearts and minds.” There’s Teddy Roosevelt saying it in 1901. I had only associated it with Vietnam, but I had traced it back to the Bible.

As I was watching the film, and as you’re alluding to now, there are a lot of parallels between what’s been going on recently in Iraq and Afghanistan. Are people ignorant of history?

I don’t know that people ignore history. I think they feel that their situation is unique. One of the things about “Amigo” is as you watch it and you start to judge the people in it and how they’re acting, I hope you get the sense that you know they haven’t read the end of the book, they haven’t seen the history. These guerrillas think they can still win. We know how it ended. We look at them and say, “My God, half of them don’t even have guns or machetes around. How are they going to beat the Americans?” The Americans don’t know how history is going to judge them.

Honestly, one of the most important parts of the movie to me is that the audience member, because they can read the subtitles, can be in everybody’s camp. They can hang out with the Americans, the villagers, the guerrillas, and realize, “Wait a minute. You don’t know what the hell is going on. You’ve only got the information you’ve got. If you knew what everyone else knew, you’d watch out or you wouldn’t do it this way.”

You decided to tell this narrative about American/Filipino history, for the most part, through the eyes of this one particular village. Why did you decide to do it that way?

Two reasons. One, we only had $1.5 million. You can’t do big battles and ships and artillery on a much bigger scale well for that little money and 5 or 6 weeks of shooting. I felt that I could keep this human and tell a micro-history here that has a lot of the important elements of the bigger story on a village level and I can do it well and we can make this village. I went to the set when we were building it and there was only one power tool there, a chainsaw. Those houses are tied together, they’re not really nailed together. That was something within our range of budget to be able to do.

The other reason is to concentrate it on a human level. You want to eventually say, “I’ve seen that guy before. I don’t know his name but he’s the corporal, he’s the drunken soldier.” There’s only a dozen guys there garrisoning this town and we meet maybe 5 of them. We meet about half the guys. They become familiar to us, whether or not we recognize their names. There are a lot of characters in the movie, but the minute you get down to platoon-size or a regiment-size it’s just another guy in an American uniform.

I really thought that “Black Hawk Down” was a well-made movie, but it didn’t do especially well. I know from talking to other people, they said, “I didn’t know that so-and-so was in it until I saw the credits,” because you couldn’t tell one American from another. They were in uniform, they had helmets on, it’s quick, they’re all soldiers. It was shot in a very down tone visually, so I couldn’t root for anybody.

Many people know little to nothing about this period, though I vaguely remember as a student, hearing the pro-American narrative that we came in, we kicked the Spanish out and we gave them their independence on their own 4th of July. Beyond that, I hadn’t considered it much. So, was there an overall desire to right a historical inaccuracy?

In some ways, we get our history more from popular media than we do from reading history books. Certainly I did. I never took a history course in my life, and I went to a four-year college. I remember very vividly in the late ‘60s reading “Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee,” where every chapter is about a different confrontation between a different Indian nation and the white settlers and American government of the time. Every one of them said, “I’ve seen this movie,” where Charles Bronson played Captain Jack of the Ute Indians or whatever, but this actual history I’m reading is more interesting than the movie. In some ways, running into a story like this, it’s just a great story that hasn’t been told. There’s two other American movies I’ve been able to track down that have anything to do with this period. One of them is basically a remake of “Gunga Din,” with no Filipinos in it. The other was kind of an American propaganda movie made in the Philippines with John Agar. If John Agar is your lead American character, you’re in big trouble.

You made a statement about Hollywood’s fidelity to historical accuracy as notoriously weak, saying that producers assume correctly that Americans’ knowledge of that history is even weaker. Philosophically speaking, what do you think is Hollywood’s obligation to telling historical stories?

You know, it’s a business. I don’t think they have an obligation or feel an obligation. I don’t even think that the people who work in network and cable news feel that much of an obligation to talk about what’s really happening. If you watched the coverage of the last couple wars we’ve had, they’re like miniseries. Each network had a theme song and they would try a couple things and when the ratings went up, they’d keep doing that. If that happened to leave out a lot of what was going on, they’d leave it out because it was taking the place of something more popular. If the news media aren’t even going to worry about history and what’s actually happening in the moment, you can’t expect a corporate business like the film business to worry about it too much.

As far as shooting “Amigo” in the Philippines, was that a no-brainer, or did you consider going elsewhere?

Yeah, we could afford to do it. One of the reasons I was able to do it is having known Joel Torre, the lead in the movie, before and talking with him about the industry. They make a lot of movies, they have a real film industry, they have a lot of talent there on both sides of camera. We were able to have an all-Filipino crew, except for the sound people because they don’t shoot many sound movies. A wonderful, premier cinematographer Lee Meily, who was able to put together a great crew for us. They generally worked 24 hours and 24 hours off, more American-style hours, so people got to go home at night and go to sleep, which they were very happy about. And we did the post-production there as well, so we could afford to do it. It was a combination of them having a real film industry and real technicians and actors who are very talented and everything that you do in the Philippines is about a third as expensive as it would be here. We could do something for a million and a half that looks like a much more expensive movie. And I’ve made 17 movies and I know how to get a lot out of shooting.


John Sayles Talks The Politics Of ‘Amigo’ & Working With A Filipino Cast

John Sayles’ latest feature, “Amigo,” is an intriguing moral fable, marrying historical narrative with a fictionalized tale that takes us on an emotional journey with those on both sides of a conflict. The background is the Philippine–American War of the early 20th century, a well-documented but not widely known (it certainly was skimmed over in our history classes) attempt to “win hearts and minds” of Filipinos. The “amigo” of the title refers to Rafael (Joel Torre), a cabeza (head) of a barrio whose initially envious position becomes his downfall when the Americans unceremoniously occupy the village and attempt to root out guerilla fighters who have taken refuge in the adjacent wilderness. Rafael’s brother is the leader of the local insurrection and so the village head finds himself in the ultimate predicament, pacifying the trigger-happy Americans while half-heartedly supporting his brother’s revolutionary tactics. “Amigo” succeeds largely because it refuses to simplify the situation or spell out the obvious comparisons a viewer could make to U.S. global politics today. It’s also well-acted, handsomely shot with rich scenery and a novelistic approach to character development. In short, it’s another fine entry in Sayles’ already impressive body of work and should more than please fans of the auteur.

As the film gears up for release this weekend, we had a chance to speak with Sayles on whether he intended for “Amigo” to represent current politics, the casting of Joel Torre (a Filipino superstar actor) and the state of filmmaking today (and in case you missed it, he also talked about the many projects on this plate in a piece we ran earlier).
Did you intend for “Amigo” to create comparisons that would resonate with the U.S.’ current incursions into Afghanistan and Iraq?
You know, it does, that’s not why I made the movie, but I think it’s kind of unavoidable. You may have noticed in the film at some point, Chris Cooper’s character says, “We’re here to win their hearts and minds.” When I was doing research on this period, I was kinda shocked to see this phrase show up over and over, including Teddy Roosevelt applying it specifically to the Philippines. And then I tracked that saying back to the Bible. I think people in uniform have been saying that since the Romans invaded Judea [laughs].

I think whenever you have a situation when one country is occupying another, is fighting a guerilla war against the people of that country, you’re going to have these people like the Amigo [Joel Torre] who are stuck in between, who have to make those though decisions – “How much can I cooperate without being a collaborator and how much can I resist without being hanged? I just wish this war was over and everybody would go away and let us, you know, plant our rice, but that’s not gonna happen.” One of the reasons I started this movie was reading a statistic that hundreds if not thousands of these barrio mayors were killed during the Philippine–American War.

How did you go about casting Joel Torre? I know he accompanied you when you traveled through the Philippines…
It’s interesting, it’s a rare thing for me, but I actually wrote the part with Joel in mind. Joel is a very well-known Filipino actor, has played most of their national heroes at least once, a very versatile actor. I got to know him through Mario Ontal, who’s been my associate editor on a lot of movies, who’s also a Filipino and grew up with Joel. So I was just visiting him and he was helping me look around, do research for “A Moment In the Sun,” [my] novel that just had come out, and we got to talking about the Filipino movie business.

And I realized that because of the existence of a real movie industry there, you have a lot of talented people there and you don’t have to bring a whole crew or most of the cast over, and that they make pretty good looking big-scale movies for very little money. So I had this idea of a movie set in a village, and I just kinda felt like, “Joel’s one of these guys who can pretty much get along with everybody, he’s a very generous actor with other actors, what if he plays a guy who’s kind of in the middle, who’s used to solving other people’s problems, getting along with everybody, and you put him in a situation where that’s no longer possible. If you get along too well with one side, the other side’s going to want to kill you, and then both sides will want to kill you.”

I developed the thing knowing that Joel would be the lead character, he would be the mayor of the barrio. And then, seeing more Filipino movies with Joel and Ronnie Lazaro (one of two casting directors), I just asked them “Bring me three people for every Tagalog-speaking part, and I’ll audition that man and you, just bring me good actors.” And there were so many good actors, I was just kinda thrilled with the cast.

“Amigo” ends on a very unusual freeze-frame – could you explain why you chose that final shot?
Well, some of it is, it’s a strange ironic moment where the son of the guy who keeps getting called “amigo” is handing his gun in and he’s being called “amigo”, but also, we just heard all the guerrillas say to him, “You’re the next generation, what are you gonna do?” So I wanted to end on him, surrounded by Americans, which is where the Philippines ended. They did get their independence, forty something years later, they got to the fight Japanese occupation to do it, and finally, the United States made their promise good that eventually they would be able to get out of territorial status. Their emotion isn’t just on the emotion, it’s something that people carry in their hearts and minds, and [the son] may never pick up the gun again but you know that in his head he’s still thinking about it. So we had to end on him, he’s the next part of the story, the story doesn’t end there.

Is it getting more difficult to get financing as the adult drama goes the way of the dodo bird?
It’s the life of any filmmaker now, there’s just a lot of question marks, you’ve got your hands in a lot of things and you hope one of them will get made. You really don’t know, it’s not really in your power to do anything but write the best draft you can, and you may not be there when it’s finally made, three other writers may have worked on it after you left it. Or can you raise the money—we had just enough money left to make “Amigo”—and now it’s all gone [laughs]. So I don’t know if we’ll make another movie or what it will be, because it’s pretty hard to raise money to make a movie from other people’s money.

“Amigo” opens in limited release on Friday, August 19th.

One thought on “New film on the US war of conquest against the Philippine people, 1900

  1. However true in fact, the film contains the amazing irony of having all of the island heroes speaking in the language of one tribe only, the Tagalog tribe. Particularly in the year 1900, many languages were spoken throughout the island archipelago claimed by the Spanish and named the Philippines’ after then king of Spain, Philippe. The primary spoken language of the islands then and today is Bisayan, which is spoken by many tribes as a first or second language. Today, you will not find the Bisayan language written or spoken, it is not taught in schools. Despite this being a contravention of the United Nations Charter on Human Rights, signed by the Tagalog government in Manila, the rights of children and of peoples to be taught their own language is anethema to the Ruling Elite, all, Tagalog families. That all these ‘heroes of the Philippines’ speak Tagalog is a slap in the face to all other tribes(yet again), but is a monument to the continuing suppression of indigenous peoples who see the steady eroding of their cultures and languages. The Manila government speaks of how this policy is to ‘unify’ the tribes, but the obvious plan is not unification, but suppression and assimilation for the sake of control. Walking into a group of people conversing, you join a dozen people in discussion, eight of them speaking in one particular language. Would you then demand that they all spoke your language to show ‘unity’? Once each year is the celebration of the leader Lapu Lapu. A Taosug tribal member, he was on the island of Cebu, settling infighting between groups of Cebuanos. Lapu Lapu, being a Taosug, spoke his language, but was fluent in Bisayan, the language of the Cebuano people. He was in Cebu when the Spanish, led by Magellan, first arrived on the archipelago, at Cebu. The city was the center of trade for all the islands, rich and populous, trading as far as Indonesia and China. The Cebuanos, under Lapu Lapu, drove the Spanish out, killing Magellan in the process on a neighboring island of Mactan. Today, the plaque that marks that spot is not written in Taosug, not written in Bisayan, it is written in Tagalog. And to the festival once a year? Playing Lapu Lapu? Yes; a Tagalog. The Spanish barely made it home to Spain, the manpower needed to sail was so depleted. With new ships and fresh soldiers the Spanish attempted again, but wiser this time, they chose a tribe that was unable to resist. They landed in the harbor of Manilad, now Manila to find a city burned and deserted, it’s people seeking shelter in the hills. The rest- is history.

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