“It is a well known fact that there is always a danger of national capitulationism and parliamentarianism existing in the people’s democratic and communist movement of Nepal. Even after a decade long People’s War and 19-day People’s Movement, the danger of capitulationism and parliamentarianism is increasingly possible to happen in a new way.”—Kiran
[The articles by Biplab, Kiran and Gajurel posted on FRS on May 17, 18 and 19 express important differences with the positions of Chairman Prachanda and Vice-Chairman Bhattarai.]
by Mohan Baidhya, “Kiran”, Vice-Chairman, UCPNM
People’s War (PW) was initiated by UCPN-Maoist on 13th February 1996. It has celebrated its 14th anniversary. PW had launched aiming to lead the struggle to the direction of communism through socialism with the process of establishing people’s Democratic Republic of Nepal. That is to say by liberating the country from semi-feudal and semi-colonial situation. To achieve these ultimate goals, the outline of PW was made in the sense of military strategic plan for the development of PW by building base areas in the remote areas.
According to it, PW was developed and empowered. It took its rupture and entered into strategic offensive by completing its earlier two phases: strategic offensive and strategic equilibrium. In this process, the tactical series: interim government, democratic republic and Constituent Assembly (CA) were officially decided by the party.
In course of PW, we came into the peace process since after a few times the people’s war had entered into the strategic offensive. In the ideological struggle of peace process, interim government was made and democratic republic of Nepal was declared. And, at the same time, monarchy was suspended. The interim government declared the election of the CA and our party get victory as the largest party in CA. Then, united government was formed under the leadership of our party.
In the process of great PW, thousands of brave warriors got martyrdom. Thousands of others became wounded and thousands are missing. The strategic achievement left to be gained in spite of the historic and unprecedented dedication, devotion and sacrifice of the thousands. Therefore, serious questions are being raised.
PW: Achievement and limitation
Great People’s War has both achievements and limitations. It is necessary to review from both the perspectives. Many military actions were taken during the period of People’s War. Some of them are successful military attacks in the district headquarters. Along with the development of military strategy and its scientific implementation, guerrilla troops were developed into military formation of People’s Liberation Army; which was developed up to the divisional formation. Hundreds of base areas and local people’s governments were made.
As we advanced ahead stepping down to the strong foundation of PW, we uprooted the local roots of the monarchy and ended it while we came in to the peace process. Establishment of Federal Democratic Republic replaced monarchy from the state power. The state was declared secular. Now with the concept of Federal republic, a new consciousness, awareness and the idea of emancipation has been developed in workers, peasants, dalits, women, nationalities and the oppressed class and the people. These are the important achievements of the great PW. However, the base areas and People’s powers\governments developed with the process of PW are not with us now. The expected goal of establishing New People’s Democratic Republican state power is still left to be established. The country is still semi-feudal and semi-colonial.
There are the limitations of PW. Initiated at the end of the 20th century and continued in the beginning of 21st century, PW has been the centre of expectation, hope and attraction of the world. But, the expectation of the world to get message from Nepalese PW is incomplete. Therefore, the achievements and the limitations of PW should be evaluated in its totality.
Tactical, Line, Policy and Leadership:
The main political tactical line of our party under the leadership of proletarian class is to complete New People’s Democratic Revolution against the feudalism, Imperialism and expansionism. The main political strategy of the party lies within it. In the context of the establishment of republic by extermination of monarchy, the main task of our party has been centred in struggle against comprador capitalism and bureaucratic capitalism along with the remnants of feudalism.
After the establishment of Federal Democratic Republic and the completion of the election of CA, it is clear that we should develop the tactics. Not to develop a new tactics and remain to be attached in the old tactical line is conservatism, status-quoism and reformism. Therefore, giving sufficient attention to the developed political situation, our party has brought a change in principal tactical line.
The present political tactics of our party has been People’s Federal republic or People’s Republic. For the achievement of that objective, the party is on the way towards drafting a new constitution, to activate the fronts of street, CA and the government (if possible) and to secure the people’s right to rebel.
There is dialectical relationship in between tactical line, policy and leadership. Here, we have to give focus on that it is not sufficient only to determining the general tactics and general policy; rather, it is equally necessary to make proper work-division by concretizing the tactics and policy in plan and programme. For this, there is an important role of revolutionary and efficient leadership.
Revolutionary and efficient leadership has its capacity to solve the problems of class struggle and two-line struggle through concrete analysis of the concrete situation. Along with it, revolutionary and efficient leadership is that who has the capacity of handling the system of democratic-centralism well to strengthen the party organization with its process of self-criticism and criticism. At last, the revolutionary and efficient leadership is who does not surrender before enemy even in the complex and hard times and who always uplifts the ideology and flag of revolution.
Question of Nationality and People’s Democracy:
Nationality and people’s democracy are always inseparably combined in the semi-feudal and semi-colonial countries like Nepal. Right in that way, we are defining Nepalese People’s democratic revolution not only in terms of People’s democratic but also in terms of national revolution.
Nepal is a landlocked country. It is encircled by China from north and by India from east- south-west. Many unequal treaties are being made with India. On the basis of these unequal treaties, Indian ruling class is interfering in economic, political, cultural and strategic spheres. The border has been encroached in the different places of the border area. Indian expansionism does not want to let Nepal be free and independent nation. Indian expansionism, on the one hand, has been a barrier in the completion of Nepalese People’s Democratic revolution and it has made its efforts to make meaningless to the civil supremacy, peace and drafting of a new constitution on the other.
The puppet government formed after the resignation of Maoist-led government has been the obstacle in the security of national independence, maintenance of civil supremacy, peace and in writing people’s constitution. The struggle for the protection of national independence and the quest of nationality and people’s democracy submitted with it has its special importance.
Danger of National Capitulationism and Parliamentarism:
It is well known fact that there is always a danger of national capitulationism and parliamentarianism existing in the people’s democratic and communist movement of Nepal. Even after a decade long People’s War and 19-day People’s Movement, the danger of capitulationism and parliamentarianism is increasingly possible to be happened in a new way.
When it seems that people’s democracy is tried to be separated from the question nationality and Nepalese leaders try to be more polite and softer towards Indian ruling class, national capitulation rises its head up. Likewise, when it is considered that democratic republic is ultimate truth and reformist constitution is enough in spite of making people’s constitution for people’s democratic republic, parliamentarianism raises its head.
In the history of the communist movement of Nepal, the revolutionaries are being labeled as extremist and dogmatist. It is only the pretension to put mask over the face of the rightist opportunism and pragmatism. And illusion is being spread there in the name of originality and creativeness. We should be aware of these all.
Future of Nepalese Revolution:
The future of Nepalese revolution is equally related with the development of Nepalese revolution and its direction. At this moment, there are great possibilities and serious challenges ahead. We should study these all objectively.
We should give our attention to the following facts while we are talking about great possibilities- first; the old ruling class is passing through serious political, financial and cultural crisis. It is unable to run the state power in old style and method.
Second, Nepalese people do not want to be ruled by the old ruling class and they want to bring change in political, economic and cultural sectors. The people are in the street since a long time for change and they are ready to involve even in a nationwide mass struggle. Third, the majority of the people of Nepal have their faith in UCPN-Maoist.
Fourth, our party UCPN- Maoist is subjectively strong, and it is enriched with experiences because it is developed through a decade long People’s War. Along with it, Nepalese revolution has serious challenges ahead.
First, regressive and status quo forces are being united against the revolution and they have support of some of the international power centres.
Second, our party is very big in quantity; however, it is not so qualitatively strong.
Third, class enemies are hatching conspiracies against Nepalese revolution and sufficient attention is not paid towards them.
However, the possibilities are stronger than the challenges in comparison. We can face all the challenges if the unity of party is made stronger ideologically, politically and organizationally, if the tactical line is implemented deliberately, if the contradictions concerned with Nepalese revolution are handled correctly and if we make the diplomatic task effective in the international area. For this, we have to take initiative in a planned way ahead for the bright future of Nepalese revolution.
At last, Nepal is in a critical situation at this time. The line of the revolution is not always straight rather it is curved. At this time, we should be very serious and sincere to implement the party line in practice being aware of national capitulationism and parliamentarianism. In this process, the fusion of revolutionary farsightedness, intellect and spirit is necessary. We should raise our revolutionary flag up incessantly in any situation.
From the current issue of Red Star